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Flow of Costs Job Order Costing Accounting for Managers

The accounting flow of costs follows the physical flow of the manufacturing process in most companies. In this chapter and the next, we assume costs follow the physical flow of products.In discussing product costing, we described how accountants and managers assign costs to products. Recall that products can be either goods or services, so this discussion applies to service and merchandising companies as well as to manufacturing companies. During production, the materials processed by workers and machines become partially manufactured products.

For example, in a, each job is unique, which allows management to establish individual prices for individual projects. In general, companies match the flow of costs to the physical flow of products through the production process. They place materials received from suppliers in the materials storeroom and record the cost of those materials when purchasing them to raw materials inventory. As they are needed for production, the materials move from the materials storeroom (raw materials inventory) to the production departments with their cost as shown below. If direct labor costs are $20,000 for the month, overhead of $24,000 ($20,000 × 120%) would be allocated to work‐in‐process inventory. Factory overhead would be allocated to individual jobs based on the portion of the $20,000 direct labor cost that is assigned to each job.

  1. Direct expenses are the costs that can be traced back to the spending of a specific department.
  2. Using it, businesses can make informed decisions about pricing, resource allocation, and production processes, leading to increased profitability and success.
  3. At any time during production, these partially manufactured products are collectively known as work in process (or goods in process).

Therefore, the focus of process costing systems is on measuring and assigning the conversion costs to the proper department in order to best determine the cost of individual units. The processes to solve the following scenario are demonstrated in Video Illustration 2-4 below. Production used $13,500 of direct material and worked 21 direct labor hours at a rate of $20 per hour.

Selling and Administrative Expenses

An allocation base or cost driver is a production activity that drives costs. Common allocation bases are direct labor hours, machine hours, direct labor dollars, or direct materials dollars. At the end of the year, the estimated applied overhead costs and actual overhead costs incurred are reconciled and any difference is adjusted. Job Costing is the process of determining the labor and materials cost for each job in a systematic way, and then using this information to create a quote for the customer.

Organization of Flow of Goods through Production

If job number 45 had $9,000 in direct labor cost for the month, factory overhead of $10,800 ($9,000 × 120%) would also be allocated to the job. First, it involves a lot of paperwork, since every single expense has to be tracked. Since job order costing relies on previous jobs to make cost estimates for overhead costs, a mistake made on one job will be carried on to wave payroll review the next job, resulting in inaccurate projections on multiple jobs. Actual costing is a form of job order costing where all the direct and indirect costs of a job or project are tracked based on the actual costs incurred in the job. The costs for all raw materials—direct and indirect—purchased to manufacture the product are debited to the Raw Materials account.

Combining both direct and indirect costs will give you a fairly accurate estimation of how much it will cost you to complete this job for your client. The direct costs are those that are directly involved in this particular job. These include things like the cost of canvas sheets, ink, and the labor costs of employees who are directly involved in the project.

Major Characteristics of Process Costing

The production department uses the material and design specifications and adds additional labor to create the sign. The sign is transferred to the finishing department for final materials and labor, before the sign is installed or delivered to the customer. Construction is a typical industry where job order costing and related accounting misstatements can be used to commit fraud. Instead of being dependent on materials, service industries depend on labor. Since their work is labor intensive, it makes sense to use labor as an activity base with billable hours often as the best allocation base.

The predetermined manufacturing overhead rate is $95 per machine hour (total estimated overhead $197,600 / 2,080 total estimated machine hours). Gross profit for the job is calculated as the sales revenue collected from the customer less the cost of the goods sold. In a job-order costing system, cost of goods sold represents total production costs, e.g. direct material, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead. When a job is finished, the total costs for the job are moved from the Work In Process inventory account (credit) to the Finished Goods inventory account (debit). The Finished Goods inventory account is where finished inventory is reported at the cost to produce—direct material, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead—until it is sold.

Businesses can use the useful cost information it gives them to plan their pricing, production, and resource allocation strategies. Businesses can use this data to make decisions leading to increased profitability and success. Overhead costs include indirect costs, such as rent, utilities, and insurance. Direct materials are the materials used to produce the product or service, such as paper for printing invitations.

It is a highly efficient costing method for a manufacturer who produces a multitude of products different from one another. Job order costing helps companies see how much they’re using their fixed assets, such as manufacturing equipment. Since machine costs are distributed amongst different jobs, the identification of this cost is important to know the cost of the job.

So, while it is possible to track the cost of each individual product, the additional information may not be worth the additional expense. Prior to the sale of the product, separating production costs and assigning them to the product results in these costs remaining with the inventory. Until they are sold, the costs incurred are reflected in an assortment of inventory accounts, such as raw materials inventory, work in process inventory, and finished goods inventory.

Accounting Principles II

To assure that materials costs are properly allocated to jobs in process, a materials requisition form (see Figure 2) is usually completed as materials are taken from the raw materials inventory and added to work‐in‐process. Another key difference between process costing and job order costing is the level of record keeping. Job order costing requires that the cost of each aspect of production is recorded separately. For instance, when manufacturing the iPhone 12, the production costs for Apple are the same for each unit of the iPhone. In such situations, the best method for tracking production costs is process costing.

Due to how difficult it is to use actual costing, most businesses opt for a different system known as normal costing. Normal costing allows businesses to come up with a close approximation of the project costs in a timely manner. Keeping track of the expenses will help you determine whether the actual job costs are significantly different from your projections. Once a job has started, it is important to keep a record of the expenses going into the project. This is done using a job cost sheet, which can be easily created on your accounting software.






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